Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is a hormone imbalance problem that can interfere with normal ovulation..
Symptoms tend to build gradually, and often begin in the early teens due to hormone changes. PCOD symptoms include:
Missed menstrual periods, irregular periods, heavy bleeding during periods, or long times between periods
Increased hair growth (hirsutism) on the face, chest, back and other areas
Hair loss on the scalp
Being overweight (other symptoms may be noticeable after weight gain) While many people may consider obesity as a main symptom of the disease, approximately one-third of women with PCOD have normal weight or are underweight..
Having trouble becoming pregnant?
How to diagnose PCOD?
A physical exam, review of medical history, blood tests and ultrasound are used to detect PCOD. A woman is diagnosed as having PCOD if she has two of three issues: anovulation (lack of ovulation), high testosterone levels, and polycystic ovaries (ovaries that have multiple cysts containing eggs).
There is no cure for PCOD, but it can be managed. Treatments should be tailored to the patient’s need.
Lifestyle choices such as losing weight can reduce symptoms and improve PCOD.
The benefits of weight reduction include improved ovulatory function, improved chances of conception, a safer pregnancy for both the mother and baby, and—if needed—better response to fertility medications
For women who are not concerned with immediate fertility, or are in their teen age groups can be offered with hormonal /contraceptive pills /anti-androgens pills alone or in combination which aims at reducing their symptoms with acne and hirsutism.
Patient’s who are trying to conceive with irregular menses can be put on different oral ovulation induction medicines or/and injectable gonadotropins hormonal injections to ovulate (letrozole/clomiphene citrate and many more).
Since gonadotropins are associated with higher risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancy, women taking this medication should be closely monitored. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is a surgical option. In this procedure, the surgeon makes small cuts in the abdomen and inserts a needle with an electrical current.
They use the electric current to destroy a small amount of tissue that produces testosterone on the ovary. Decreasing testosterone levels may allow regular ovulation to occur.
Assurance in PCOD patient is offering them IVF treatment.
Strict monitoring will be required to avoid hyperstimulation (OHSS) which is serious conditions and major drawback of undergoing ovarian stimulation during IVF in PCOD patients.